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Incident information

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Establish the availability of pre-arranged evacuation strategies and policies

  • Control measure - Guidance
    Review the use and effectiveness of evacuation, shelter in place or 'stay put' plans throughout the incident, to ensure they remain valid
  • Control measure - Guidance
    Identify number and last known position (LKP) of any occupants in need of rescue or assistance to evacuate
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Be aware of the survival guidance currently being provided by the fire control room to persons at risk

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider information being shared by fire control room personnel relating to number and location of callers

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider occupants self-evacuating prior to a change in evacuation strategy

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Share information with fire control rooms regarding potential building failures

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider the potential for undetected firespread

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Continually monitor and assess the fire development for signs and symptoms of escalation

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider the effects of uncontrolled ventilation on fires at height when developing tactical plans

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Appoint safety officers or observers to monitor building failures and assess potential impacts

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Assess the status of compartmentation, fire doors, means of escape and protected shafts

  • Control measure - Guidance
    Consider the impact that failure or change in operations of fixed installations might have on fire spread
  • Control measure - Guidance
    Check building system indicator, slave control, alarm panels and CCTV to assess the status of facilities
  • Further incident information

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Identify the safest access route, rendezvous points (RVPs) and marshalling areas, and communicate to all responders and the fire control room

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Appoint a search coordination function or sector

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Gather information from fire control rooms, people leaving the building and the bridgehead regarding areas searched, people still within the building and people who may need assistance leaving

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Monitor internal conditions in stairwells and other means of escape, consider changing approach if continued activity will make evacuation untenable 

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Establish and communicate the emergency evacuation and tactical withdrawal of responders plans to all personnel, and other responders if present 

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Request specialist advice from fire safety, fire protection or other appropriate sources of subject matter expertise

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Identify the location of basements, chimneys, voids, ducting, cavities and concealed areas

Resource information

  • Control measure - Guidance
    Secure sufficient firefighting media to enable the fire to be fully extinguished
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Request sufficient and appropriate additional resources

  • Control measure - Guidance
    Ensure an adequate water supply based on the flow requirements of multiple jets being used at height
  • Control measure - Guidance

     Consider requesting specialist resources from own or neighbouring fire and rescue services, or partner agencies

  • Control measure - Guidance
    Consider the use of wet/dry risers, fire mains or booster pumps to supply water to the scene of operations
  • Control measure - Guidance
    Identify a secondary water supply in case of increased demand or failure
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider seeking specialist advice from a fire safety officer or local authority building inspector about the structural integrity of the building

  • Further resource information

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Consider the deployment of oncoming resources when positioning personnel and vehicles
    • Confirm that required agencies have been requested or notified (e.g. Police, Ambulance, environmental agencies)

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Request medical support for any casualties and safety of incident responders if required
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Request support for people affected by the incident, from the local authority, partner agencies or police family liaison officers 

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Request utilities representative where isolation is required or illegal extraction evident

Risk information

  • People

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Determine whether people should be advised to evacuate, shelter in place or 'stay put'

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Use any available plans of the building to inform tactical decision making

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider establishing a functional role to co-ordinate credible sources of information on the location of casualties, to be used when developing tactical plans at fires involving tall buildings

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Implement a co-ordination process for fire survival guidance being given by fire control
    • Control measure - Guidance
      Deploy personnel with suitable equipment to rescue casualties based on information and risk
    • Control measure - Guidance
      Review the use and effectiveness of evacuation, shelter in place or 'stay put' plans throughout the incident, to ensure they remain valid
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Gather information from fire control rooms, people leaving the building and the bridgehead regarding areas searched, people still within the building and people who may need assistance leaving

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Record relevant details regarding occupants that have self-evacuated, been evacuated or rescued from the building and ensure it is communicated to all relevant persons.

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider occupants self-evacuating prior to a change in evacuation strategy

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider taking control of evacuation alert systems

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Locate suitable refuges for occupants evacuating through unsafe areas 

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider using tactical ventilation to improve conditions and maintain access and egress routes

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Carry out any rescues or lifesaving actions

  • Restricted access and egress

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Select the safest and simplest method for gaining access or entry by force
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Identify security features that may compromise safe access to and egress from the scene of operations

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the integrity of escape routes when planning operational activity for fires in tall buildings

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider alternative access and egress points using ladders or aerial appliances

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure access and egress routes are protected and not compromised by firefighting activity

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider taking control of evacuation alert systems

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider occupants self-evacuating prior to a change in evacuation strategy

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider designating separate routes for access, egress and emergency evacuation

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider using tactical ventilation to improve conditions and maintain access and egress routes

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Monitor internal conditions in stairwells and other means of escape, consider changing approach if continued activity will make evacuation untenable 

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Locate suitable refuges for occupants evacuating through unsafe areas 

  • Firespread in external components of the building or External firespread

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure internal and external firefighting personnel are aware of all firefighting activities being carried out

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Provide early protection of external boundaries to prevent firespread, flame extension and thermal radiation

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Carry out regular external surveys of the building; the frequency should be based on the nature and severity of the fire and firespread

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Consider positioning safety officers externally to observe fire development, smoke and falling debris
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Establish a cordon taking into account falling or floating (planing) building components

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Investigate for fire spreading out of, or into, the building through openings in walls and roofs

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the use of thermal imaging cameras

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider using fixed, aerial appliance mounted and firefighting monitors

    • Control measure - Guidance Consider using external fixed firefighting installations (e.g. curtain wall drencher systems to protect the building)
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider using water spray for suppression of external firespread

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider using compressed air foam as a fire break or for suppression of external firespread

  • Fire breaching a compartment

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Assess building areas and means of compartmentation, by referring to SSRI or building plans

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consult risk information for any information regarding potential building failures

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the original use of the building and whether this has changed, especially if this has involved internal layouts being altered

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Investigate for indications of early failure of compartmentation elements and assess requirements for firefighting media and resources

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Look for signs of smoke, fire or fire gases coming from other parts of building unaffected by fire

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Be aware of features of the building that may allow for spread of fire or smoke

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the integrity of escape routes when planning operational activity for fires in tall buildings

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Establish where fire stopping materials are present in the construction

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider creating a firebreak to prevent firespread, considering the time required to implement

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure all areas above, below and adjacent to the fire compartment are checked for potential firespread

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Appoint safety officers or observers to monitor building failures and assess potential impacts

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider whether a breach of the fire compartment could spread fire to another room, floor, area or other building and evaluate the possible hazards

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Gain access to the roof space and investigate any adjoining roof space for firespread

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Request specialist advice from fire safety, fire protection or other appropriate sources of subject matter expertise

  • Failure of fixed installations or firefighting facilities

    • Control measure - GuidanceControl measure - Guidance Consider requesting specialist advice before attempting to alter or disable any fixed installation
    • Control measure - GuidanceControl measure - Guidance

      Ensure all operational activities and personnel are considered before changing the operation of any fixed installation

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Consider the impact that failure or change in operations of fixed installations might have on fire spread
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure all personnel are informed of any intended tactics regarding the fixed installation systems

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Implement contingency arrangements to account for the failure of fixed installations to protect firefighting personnel and members of the public

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the potential for unseen or unintended spread of smoke and fire where systems are not adequately designed or maintained

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Identify a secondary water supply in case of increased demand or failure
  • Failure of or damage to firefighting media supply

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Secure sufficient firefighting media to enable the fire to be fully extinguished
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Develop and organise a water/media management strategy or nominate a water officer

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Identify a secondary water supply in case of increased demand or failure
    • Control measure - Guidance
      Consider the use of wet/dry risers, fire mains or booster pumps to supply water to the scene of operations
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Request a water undertaker to provide a supply and pressure of water greater than otherwise available

  • Unstable structure

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider requesting specialist advice when assessing the structural integrity of the building 

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the structural stability of the building before deploying personnel for internal firefighting 

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Review the tactical plan and communicate changes following identification of partial or structural collapse 

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the effects of the fire’s duration and intensity and firefighting activity on structural elements or structural frames 

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider appointing safety officers to monitor the building for signs of collapse 

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the potential for collapse when determining the location of access and egress points 

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider identifying additional points of egress that can be used for emergency evacuation or tactical withdrawal 

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Identify and use protected zones in the building 

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider seeking specialist advice when defining the hazard area for a potential collapse 

  • Live utilities

    • Control measure - Guidance Determine which utilities are involved in the incident
    • Control measure - Guidance Isolate any utilities that may affect the incident or crew safety, and secure against reconnection
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider seeking specialist advice or assistance for managing and controlling utility supplies to larger premises, or where isolating supply is problematic. Refer to control measure - Seek specialist advice or assistance for dealing with utilities or fuel.

    • Control measure - Guidance Consider the consequence and impact of shutting off utility supplies for larger premises, such as schools or hospitals
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Record and time stamp the decision to isolate utilities in the analytical risk assessment and decision log

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Inform all personnel and other responders which utilities have been isolated and if any remain operative

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure that PPE is worn in accordance with service risk assessment for live utilities

    • Control measure - Guidance Implement cordon control to maintain the appropriate cordons or safe approach distances for the utilities or fuel present
  • Cable entanglement

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Brief personnel about the presence of cables prior to entering hazard area

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Assess the likelihood that cables and fixings will fail increasing the risk of entanglement

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider using thermal imaging cameras to locate cable-related hazards

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider using routes that avoid cables where there is a risk of entanglement or electricity

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider securing or carrying out a  a controlled release of cables

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Establish appropriate emergency arrangements for releasing personnel from cable entanglement

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Implement appropriate emergency arrangements for releasing personnel from cable entanglement

  • Abnormal fire behaviour or Escalation of fire behaviour due to building failure or Impact of building failure on fire behaviour

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Position vehicles anticipating fire development, thermal radiation, collapse, smoke and other hazards
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the effects of uncontrolled ventilation on fires at height when developing tactical plans

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Brief crews to carry out self-protection, door entry and compartment firefighting techniques

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Use the appropriate extinguishing method, media, techniques and equipment

    • Control measure - GuidanceControl measure - Guidance

      Put in place covering and/or safety jets according to identified risks

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the potential for unseen or unintended spread of smoke and fire where systems are not adequately designed or maintained

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider using tactical ventilation to improve conditions and maintain access and egress routes

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the integrity of escape routes when planning operational activity for fires in tall buildings

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Consider the flow path of smoke and fire gases and the potential for fire spread
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Establish the location and integrity of fire protected areas of construction

  • Fire and thermal radiation

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Position vehicles anticipating fire development, thermal radiation, collapse, smoke and other hazards
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Provide early protection of external boundaries to prevent firespread, flame extension and thermal radiation

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Use the appropriate extinguishing method, media, techniques and equipment

    • Control measure - GuidanceControl measure - Guidance

      Put in place covering and/or safety jets according to identified risks

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure that Firefighting PPE is worn in accordance with service risk assessment, procedures and training

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Look for signs of compartmentation or of fire stopping that has been damaged or removed

  • Flashover, backdraught and fire gas ignition

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Where backdraught conditions are suspected, apply media and ventilate before interior deployment

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Where flashover conditions are suspected, consider direct firefighting techniques

    • Control measure - Guidance Consider employing a combination of direct firefighting and gas cooling to control conditions
    • Control measure - GuidanceControl measure - Guidance

      Consider the isolation or containment of the fire compartment

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Brief crews to carry out self-protection, door entry and compartment firefighting techniques

  • Smoke and fire gases

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the effects of wind and ventilation on smoke and fire gases when positioning firefighting personnel

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider using tactical ventilation to improve conditions and maintain access and egress routes

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure personnel wear the appropriate type of RPE

    • Implement BA entry control procedures appropriate to the level of risk identified
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Use available methods and equipment to limit the spread of smoke and fire gases into stairwells when laying hose through doors

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the impact of smoke plume on downwind life risk, road users and other transport networks

  • Hazardous materials

    • Control measure - Guidance

      When approaching the incident use visual and other incident indicators to inform situational awareness

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Gather incident information from a suitable safe distance based on hazard assessment

    • Identify any hazardous materials signage and other indicators as part of scene survey

    • Identify whether the incident should be reclassified as a hazardous materials response
  • Unguarded edges and unstable ground

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Use any work equipment or safety device provided in accordance with training and instructions

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the use of on-site equipment and vehicles to access sites with unstable ground

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Identify safe access and egress routes and areas for the site and any specific working areas

    • Control measure - Guidance Select the most appropriate work at height equipment for the activities and hazards identified

Powers, policies and procedures

  • Enter premises or a place, by force if necessary, without the consent of the owner or occupier of the premises: 
    • If they reasonably believe an emergency to have occurred
    • If they reasonably believe a fire to have broken out or to be about to break out
    • For the purpose of extinguishing or preventing the fire or protecting life or property
    • NB Does not apply to Crown property (including ministry of defence) and diplomatic or consular premises
    • NB The Master of the ship (or delegated officer) of a merchant vessel must give permission to board
  • Further powers, policies and procedures

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Request a water undertaker to provide a supply and pressure of water greater than otherwise available

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Enter into an agreement to secure the use of water under the control of a person

Why? Expectations? Benefit vs Risk?

Objectives

  • Maintain the safety of all personnel, other responders and the public

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Apply the firefighter safety maxim and safe person principles at incidents

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Extinguish the fire and eliminate all ignition sources

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider the potential development of the incident when prioritising operational activity or evacuation

  • Further objectives

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Promote community recovery and restore normal operations
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Secure the scene to ensure evidence is preserved for internal and external investigations

Tactical priorities

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Carry out any rescues or lifesaving actions

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Identify the most appropriate evacuation plan and record rationale for decision

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider the potential development of the incident when prioritising operational activity or evacuation

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Determine whether people should be advised to evacuate, shelter in place or 'stay put'

  • Consider taking action to prevent a serious escalation of the incident

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Develop and communicate a firefighting plan and ventilation strategy to all personnel

  • Control measure - Guidance Identify the number of casualties requiring medical attention and instigate a triage process
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider appointing a search co-ordinator to ensure all areas have been systematically searched

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Develop and communicate an incident plan to relevant personnel, including the fire control room

  • Further tactical priorities

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Identify all possible ignition sources and eliminate them as far as is possible

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider moving physical evidence to a safe place, away from the effects of the fire or firefighting

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Establish appropriate emergency arrangements for releasing personnel from cable entanglement

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Secure the scene to ensure evidence is preserved for internal and external investigations

Operational tactics

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider the appropriate speed of intervention to limit fire development

  • Control measure - Guidance Monitor the effect of the media on the fire to ensure that the anticipated outcome is achieved
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Use effective means of communication for co-ordinating internal and external activity

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider compartment boundary cooling using appropriate and effective fire-fighting media

  • Control measure - Guidance
    Deploy personnel with suitable equipment to rescue casualties based on information and risk
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider creating a firebreak to prevent firespread, considering the time required to implement

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Implement a co-ordinated search plan, define parameters and sub-divide the area where necessary

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider the integrity of escape routes when planning operational activity for fires in tall buildings

  • Further operational tactics

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Consider the use of monitors (aerial appliance mounted, fixed or portable)
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Use appropriate methods when accessing concealed spaces, which may require specialist teams and equipment

Communication

  • Control measure - Guidance Ensure that crews are briefed on all firefighting activities and provide regular updates on progress
  • Control measure - Guidance Establish communications to coordinate internal and external firefighting operations
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Establish communication arrangements to allow information to be gathered from and passed to fire control rooms 

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Implement fallback procedures should there be a failure in the communications equipment

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Conduct regular communication checks to ensure equipment continues to function

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Inform all personnel and other responders which utilities have been isolated and if any remain operative

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Ensure all personnel are informed of any intended tactics regarding the fixed installation systems

  • Further communication

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Use the most effective methods for communicating with people who are either directly or indirectly involved in the incident 

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Record relevant details regarding occupants that have self-evacuated, been evacuated or rescued from the building and ensure it is communicated to all relevant persons.

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Carry out timely liaison with partner agencies on the establishment of reception centres

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider taking control of fixed communications systems 

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Liaise with media liaison officers (MLO) and strategic commanders on co-ordinating ongoing media interaction

Control

  • Control measure - Guidance
    Consider positioning safety officers externally to observe fire development, smoke and falling debris
  • Control measure - Guidance Establish and control inner and outer cordons, taking into account items falling from height and wind conditions
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Evaluate and monitor the potential footprint of collapse and debris

  • Control measure - Guidance
    Position vehicles anticipating fire development, thermal radiation, collapse, smoke and other hazards
  • Control measure - Guidance
    Determine a suitable location for the bridgehead considering fire protection, water supplies and fire spread
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider establishing a staging area for resources at a suitable location

  • Control measure - Guidance
    Consider establishing a search sector to co-ordinate fire survival guidance and prioritise response
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Establish sectorisation appropriate to the type, size and complexity of the incident

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider fire survival guidance offered to callers by fire control room, when developing tactical plans at fires involving tall buildings

  • Further control

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Record and time stamp the decision to isolate utilities in the analytical risk assessment and decision log

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Note issues relating to cordons or physical evidence in the decision log

Incident closure and handover

  • Control measure - Guidance
    Identify the area of origin and investigate possible causes of the fire considering criminal acts
  • Control measure - GuidanceControl measure - Guidance

    Hand over responsibility for removed items and security of premises to the responsible person or the police

  • Control measure - Guidance
    Review the effectiveness of active, passive and fire engineered protection before handing over the incident
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Carry out timely liaison with partner agencies on the establishment of reception centres

  • Further incident closure and handover

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Secure the scene to ensure evidence is preserved for internal and external investigations

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Record statements from relevant people as soon as practicable

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider requesting assistance from a police crime scene investigator or fire and rescue service investigator for collecting physical evidence

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Notify investigators if personnel have recently attended similar incidents, which could result in cross-contamination of an investigation scene

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Avoid movement of dials, valves and controls or record original position for investigation purposes

    • Control measure - GuidanceControl measure - Guidance
      Liaise with the police and local authority support teams at incidents involving serious injury and fatalities
    • Control measure - Guidance
      Document any failure of fire safety measures and communicate to relevant department
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Record relevant details regarding occupants that have self-evacuated, been evacuated or rescued from the building and ensure it is communicated to all relevant persons.

Additional information