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Incident information

  • Control measure - Guidance
    Confirm and communicate the involvement, num​ber and severity of any casualties (persons or animals)
  • Control measure - Guidance Establish the last known position (LKP) or place last seen (PLS) of casualties, including times
  • Control measure - Guidance
    Question the casualty, other responders and witnesses to understand incident factors and history
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Identify best access route, rendezvous point (RVP) and marshalling area and communicate to all responders

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Identify building construction, cause and type of collapse and any potential for further collapse

  • Control measure - Guidance Consider the integrity of the surrounding structures and environment before, during and after space creation
  • Further incident information

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Identify building construction, cause and type of collapse and any potential for further collapse

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Access past, present and future weather information from sources such as the Met Office

Resource information

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Request medical support at rescue incidents as soon as a need is identified

  • Control measure - Guidance Consider requesting additional resources or specialist teams to assist with the transportation of casualties
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Request adequate resources to enable effective search and timely extrication of casualties

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Request adequate resources to enable effective search given the scope and environment of the incident

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider requesting advice on structural integrity from local authority building control teams or USAR Tac Ad

  • Further resource information

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the management of any glass that might affect rescue operations

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider using a range of thermal imaging resources such as aerial appliances, drones and helicopters

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Consider using a range of thermal imaging resources such as aerial appliances, drones and helicopters
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Carry out testing and monitoring of the atmosphere and use the results to inform the incident plan

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider requesting geological monitoring equipment in consultation with urban search and rescue (USAR) tactical advisors

Risk information

  • Hazardous materials

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Approach the vicinity of the incident cautiously and at slow speed

    • Control measure - Guidance Identify whether the incident should be reclassified as a hazardous materials response
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure that appropriate inner and outer cordons are established following an assessment of the risk to crews, other agencies and the public

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the likely presence of explosives, flammables, dusts, biological materials and health hazards

  • Heavy and bulky objects

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the task, individual capabilities, load and environment (TILE) when carrying out risk assessments for manual handling

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider task rotation when  personnel are carrying out  manual handling tasks

  • Live utilities

    • Control measure - Guidance Isolate any utilities that may affect the incident or crew safety, and secure against reconnection
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Identify any utilities not isolated and communicate to all personnel

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Request the attendance of utility providers to isolate incoming supplies if local isolation is not possible

  • Rescue tools

    • Control measure - Guidance Monitor rescue tool performance for indicators of unidentified materials
    • Control measure - Guidance Consider rotating crews involved in the use of rescue tools to reduce fatigue, exposure to noise and vibration
    • Control measure - Guidance Provide hard and soft protection between the tool and the casualties, operators and other responders
    • Control measure - Guidance Minimise the production of airborne particulates during extrication and provide respiratory protection
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure all personnel wear PPE according to service risk assessment and procedures for rescue incidents

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider extrication methods which do not require the use of tools or equipment

  • Restricted access and egress

    • Control measure - Guidance Monitor access and egress routes as the incident progresses and review the incident plan if necessary
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider the impact of the transport infrastructure on safe access and egress routes

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Define routes using physical barriers and clearly illuminate where there is reduced visibility
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Account for any extended travel times in the incident plan and contingencies

  • Unstable structure

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider requesting advice on structural integrity from local authority building control teams or USAR Tac Ad

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Assess and monitor the effectiveness shoring

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider requesting specialist tactical advice and resources for shoring

    • Control measure - Guidance Consider requesting specialist monitoring equipment for unstable structures
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Assess and continuously monitor the buildings for signs of failing structural integrity, external and internal

  • Working environment

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Carry out testing and monitoring of the atmosphere and use the results to inform the incident plan

    • Control measure - Guidance Consider using battery powered lighting to reduce noise and eliminate fumes
    • Control measure - Guidance Identify sub-surface voids and highlight avoidance routes at building collapse incidents
    • Control measure - Guidance Ensure machinery and processes are isolated and locked out before starting rescue operations
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure that cable cutting equipment is available at incidents where cables may cause entanglement

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure personnel working around unstable ground are secured using work restraint or fall arrest systems

Powers, policies and procedures

  • Restrict the access of persons to premises or a place if they reasonably believe an emergency to have occurred

Why? Expectations? Benefit vs Risk?

Objectives

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Provide medical care and release trapped casualties

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Maintain the safety of all personnel, other responders and the public

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Save life and reduce harm

  • Further objectives

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Secure the scene to ensure evidence is preserved for internal and external investigations

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Minimise the impact of the incident and fire service actions on any identified environmental risk

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Promote community recovery and restore normal operations

Tactical priorities

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Develop and communicate immediate release, emergency and full extrication plans

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Stabilise life threatening injuries or conditions and maintain casualty care throughout incident

  • Control measure - Guidance Anticipate casualty condition and potential survivability given the environmental situation
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Implement a co-ordinated search plan, define parameters and sub-divide the area where necessary

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Develop a plan based on Locate, Access, Stabilise, Transport (LAST) principles

  • Control measure - Guidance Identify the number of casualties requiring medical attention and instigate a triage process
  • Control measure - Guidance
    Establish a safe working environment for fire crews and other responders
  • Further tactical priorities

    • Control measure - Guidance Consider screening casualties from the view of the public, media or other casualties
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider appointing a search coordinator to ensure all areas have been systematically searched

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Establish and communicate limits of operation based on identified risks and available resources

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider preservation of evidence when planning, communicating and implementing tactics

Operational tactics

  • Control measure - Guidance Protect casualties by physically isolating them from immediate harm where possible
  • Control measure - Guidance Assign suitably trained responders to carry out casualty assessment and provide treatment
  • Control measure - Guidance Adopt a methodical system when using thermal imaging equipment to search for casualties
  • Control measure - Guidance
    Deploy an appropriately sized team into confined or restricted areas for search and rescue tasks
  • Further operational tactics

    • Control measure - Guidance Deploy an appropriately sized team to ensure the safe transportation of casualties
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Stabilise casualties until resources or specialist teams are available to assist with extrication

Communication

  • Control measure - Guidance Provide a structured handover when transferring casualty to medical responders
  • Control measure - Guidance
    Establish communications with police search advisors (PolSA) and other responder agencies
  • Control measure - Guidance Use intrinsically safe radio equipment in atmospheres where there is a risk of fire or explosion
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Conduct regular communication checks to ensure equipment continues to function

  • Control measure - Guidance Establish an effective system of communication considering distances and the working environment
  • Further communication

    • Control measure - Guidance Establish a media liaison point and brief a nominated media liaison officer
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Communicate the incident situation to other responders via fire control using the M\ETHANE message protocol

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Establish resilient telecommunications with other responding agencies and consider talk groups

Control

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider relief and welfare arrangements to reduce the effects of stress and fatigue on themselves and others

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Ensure that appropriate inner and outer cordons are established, identified and communicated following an assessment of risk to crews, other agencies and the public

  • Further control

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Communicate the tactical withdrawal and emergency evacuation arrangements to all personnel

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Commit only minimum number of essential personnel to hazard area

Incident closure and handover

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Instigate and co-operate with post incident investigations where necessary

  • Control measure - Guidance Conduct a structured debrief at a level appropriate to the size of the incident
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Ensure that hazards and risk controls are identified when handing over safety to the responsible person

  • Further incident closure and handover

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Follow service protocols for post incident health surveillance and monitoring

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider decontamination of personnel, PPE and equipment prior to redeployment

Additional information

  • USAR phases of rescue:

    • ASR 1 – Wide Area Assessment
    • ASR 2 – Sector Assessment
    • ASR 3 – Rapid Search and Rescue
    • ASR 4 – Full Search and Rescue
    • ASR 5 – Total Coverage Search and Recovery
  • Consider the 6 phases of rescue (REPEAT)

    • Reconnaissance and Survey
    • Elimination of Utilities
    • Primary Survey-Search and Rescue
    • Exploration of Voids and Spaces
    • Access by selected debris removal
    • Terminate by general debris removal