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Incident information

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Identify best access route, rendezvous point (RVP) and marshalling area and communicate to all responders

  • Control measure - Guidance Establish the last known position (LKP) or place last seen (PLS) of casualties, including times
  • Control measure - Guidance Identify the casualty's level of consciousness and offer reassurance where possible
  • Control measure - Guidance
    Question the casualty, other responders and witnesses to understand incident factors and history
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Identify the location of suitable access and egress routes before committing crews to a confined space

  • Control measure - Guidance Investigate the possibility of ingress from gas, liquids or flowing materials into the confined space
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Carry out testing and monitoring of the atmosphere and use the results to inform the incident plan

  • Further incident information

    • Control measure - Guidance
      Identify number and last known position (LKP) of any occupants in need of rescue or assistance to evacuate
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Access past, present and future weather information from sources such as the Met Office

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider using the facilities available in the infrastructure control room to monitor the incident

Resource information

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Request adequate resources to enable effective search and timely extrication of casualties

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Request technical rescue teams to attend incidents involving confined space or work at height

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Confirm that required agencies have been requested or notified (e.g. Police, Ambulance, environmental agencies)

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Request expert advice or assistance based on the extent and urgency of the underground structure incident

  • Further resource information

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider using a range of thermal imaging resources such as aerial appliances, drones and helicopters

    • Control measure - Guidance Allocate sufficient personnel to support the use of PPE and RPE that has been implemented for confined space working
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider requesting specialist advice or assistance for atmospheric monitoring

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Request medical support at rescue incidents as soon as a need is identified

Risk information

  • Restricted access and egress

    • Control measure - Guidance Identify and communicate access and egress routes to crews considering the incident plan and environment
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Establish and maintain safe means of access to and egress from scene of operations at all times

    • Control measure - Guidance Account for extended travel times in the incident plan and include contingencies for restricted access and egress
    • Control measure - Guidance Only use access lifts and transport approved for fire and rescue service purposes
  • Flammable or explosive atmospheres

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Carry out testing and monitoring of the atmosphere and use the results to inform the incident plan

    • Control measure - Guidance Consider ventilating confined spaces to improve internal conditions
    • Control measure - Guidance Isolate or limit all ignition sources before ventilating a confined space where flammable gases are present
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Isolate the confined space from the ingress of gas, liquids or flowing materials

    • Control measure - Guidance Use only intrinsically safe equipment in confined spaces where there is a risk of a flammable or explosive atmosphere
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure that all personnel wear the type of RPE identified by service risk assessments, procedures and training

  • Extremes of temperature or humidity

    • Control measure - Guidance Enforce appropriate restrictions on the time crews can be committed to working in a confined space
    • Control measure - Guidance
      Monitor personnel for signs and symptoms of fatigue, dehydration, heat or cold stress
    • Control measure - Guidance Instigate appropriate medical interventions if personnel show signs and symptoms of physiological stress
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider task rotation when  personnel are carrying out  manual handling tasks

  • Irrespirable atmosphere

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Carry out testing and monitoring of the atmosphere and use the results to inform the incident plan

    • Control measure - Guidance Identify the presence of residual sludge and other deposits before committing crews to a confined space
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Reduce the risk of fumes and gases from disturbed residual sludge and deposits in a confined space

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure that all personnel wear the type of RPE identified by service risk assessments, procedures and training

  • Ingress of water or liquid

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Access past, present and future weather information from sources such as the Met Office

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Identify the potential for liquids to enter confined spaces, including surface water

    • Control measure - Guidance Isolate all sources of liquid ingress to confined spaces where possible
    • Control measure - Guidance Implement suitable contingency arrangements where there is a risk of liquid ingress into a confined space
  • Free flowing solids

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Identify the potential for liquids to enter confined spaces, including surface water

    • Control measure - Guidance Where isolation or removal is possible, ensure that it occurs before personnel are committed to the space
  • Unstable natural or built environment

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Assess and monitor the effectiveness shoring

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider requesting specialist tactical advice and resources for shoring

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Liaise with civil engineering specialists on-site and the tactical adviser from the fire and rescue service

    • Control measure - GuidanceControl measure - Guidance

      Liaise with the responsible person or competent person if required

  • Plant and machinery

    • Control measure - Guidance Request advice from responsible person or engineer regarding isolation and lock out of power supplies
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider Isolating power supplies to on-site machinery

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Liaise with the responsible person or process expert to obtain specialist advice on machinery involved

  • Live utilities

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Liaise with the owner or occupier, on-site engineers or maintenance engineers regarding power systems

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Consider isolating the power supplies, considering the impact on any critical systems

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Identify any sources of renewable energy generation such as photovoltaic panels or wind power

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure that PPE is worn in accordance with service risk assessment for live utilities

Powers, policies and procedures

  • Restrict the access of persons to premises or a place if they reasonably believe an emergency to have occurred

  • Further powers, policies and procedures

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure that no person shall enter a confined space unless it is not reasonably practicable to achieve without such entry

Why? Expectations? Benefit vs Risk?

Objectives

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Maintain the safety of all personnel, other responders and the public

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Save life and reduce harm

  • Further objectives

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Minimise the impact of the incident and fire service actions on any identified environmental risk

Tactical priorities

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Implement a co-ordinated search plan, define parameters and sub-divide the area where necessary

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider benefits to casualty of immediate extrication or medical attention in-situ

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Develop a plan based on Locate, Access, Stabilise, Transport (LAST) principles

  • Control measure - Guidance Evaluate a range of options that avoid committing personnel to work in a confined space
  • Control measure - Guidance Commit personnel to work in a confined space only following a full risk assessment
  • Control measure - Guidance Implement appropriate tag line and recovery systems for teams working within confined spaces
  • Control measure - Guidance Ensure that emergency arrangements are maintained and resourced for the duration of the incident
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Co-ordinate the evacuation, ventilation, fixed installation and intervention strategies simultaneously

  • Further tactical priorities

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Develop a plan based on Locate, Access, Stabilise, Transport (LAST) principles

    • Control measure - Guidance Identify the number of casualties requiring medical attention and instigate a triage process
    • Control measure - Guidance Assign suitably trained responders to carry out casualty assessment and provide treatment

Operational tactics

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Carry out testing and monitoring of the atmosphere and use the results to inform the incident plan

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Deploy an appropriate team size into confined or restricted areas for search and rescue task

  • Control measure - Guidance Make a safe approach to the casualty and maintain a safe environment for all involved
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Establish and maintain contact with the casualty

  • Control measure - Guidance Protect casualties by physically isolating them from immediate harm where possible
  • Consider the need for immediate rescue or a means of securing the casualty

  • Control measure - Guidance Establish tag line and recovery systems for crews deployed around unstable ground
  • Further operational tactics

    • Control measure - Guidance Assign suitably trained responders to carry out casualty assessment and provide treatment

Communication

  • Control measure - Guidance Establish an effective system of communication considering distances and the working environment
  • Control measure - Guidance

    Conduct regular communication checks to ensure equipment continues to function

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Implement fallback procedures should there be a failure in the communications equipment

  • Control measure - Guidance Brief search teams on plans, parameters and casualty information, confirming understanding
  • Control measure - Guidance Provide a structured handover when transferring casualty to medical responders
  • Further communication

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Use the most effective methods for communicating with people who are either directly or indirectly involved in the incident 

    • Control measure - Guidance Establish a media liaison point and brief a nominated media liaison officer
    • Control measure - Guidance

      Liaise and work with on-site staff or the contractor's specialist teams where they are available

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Ensure communication systems are effective in subsurface and tunnel environments

    • Control measure - Guidance Use only intrinsically safe equipment in confined spaces where there is a risk of a flammable or explosive atmosphere

Control

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Ensure that all personnel wear the level of PPE identified by service risk assessments, procedures and training

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Ensure that all personnel wear the type of RPE identified by service risk assessments, procedures and training

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Communicate emergency evacuation signal and muster point arrangements to all personnel

Incident closure and handover

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Consider decontamination of personnel, PPE and equipment prior to redeployment

  • Control measure - Guidance

    Follow service protocols for post incident health surveillance and monitoring

  • Further incident closure and handover

    • Control measure - Guidance

      Instigate and co-operate with post incident investigations where necessary

Additional information

CONFINED SPACE 

While at least one of the five specified risks must be present or reasonably foreseeable for a space to be classified as confined, there are other associated hazards that may be encountered when working in confined spaces. See flow chart below:

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Confined space flow chart